mardi 12 novembre 2013

Ethnicity and Miinorities - Nov 13th

1965 Race Relations  Act

  • Ends discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnic or national origins
  • Outlaws discrimination in public places
                    -> legislation considered weak by labour backbenchers and anti-racist groups

                    -> did not cover housing and employment & racial discrimination not a criminal offence.
 1968 Race Relations Act

  •  reinforces 1965 Act 
  • extends measures to employment & housing.

1976 Race Relations Act

  • incorporated previous legislation &defined direct and indirect discrimination
  • outlawed racial discrimination in the work place and at school, in provision of goods and services,
  • created CRE (Commission for Racial Equality) to investigate unlawful discrimination.   But tightened immigration standards.

 Stephen Lawrence 1974 -1993


A black British man from South East London.

Was murdered in a racist attack while waiting for a bus on the evening of 22 April 1993.


 Two of the 5 perpetrators were convicted almost 20 years later in 2012.

 Race Equality strategy, Race Relations Amendment/Act, 2000


  • A public enquiry was ordered into the death of Stephen Lawrence conducted by Macpherson
  • Following Macpherson's report, the 1976 Act was amended in 2000 to include the police for the first time.
  • Public bodies must promote race equality & prevent race discrimination.
  • Efforts to increase minority ethnic staff.

 British population by Ethnic group

  •   White population: 55 M 
  • Total Asians: 4.4 M

Indian 1.5

Pakistani 1.2

Bangladeshi 450,000

Chinese 420,000

  •  Total Blacks:4.9 M

 Lifestyles of Ethnic Minorities 

  • Household size: largest for Bangladeshi and Pakistani
  • Employment: Indians were least disadvantaged & Bangladeshis most disadvantaged.
  • Home ownership: Indians &Pakistanis higher / Caribbean and Bangladeshi rented houses
  • Cars: Highest for Indians lowest for Bangladeshi
  • Ability to speak and read English: greatest among Indians and least among Bangladeshis
  • Patterns of religious affiliation: 
                   - Nearly all Pakistanis and Bangladeshis Muslims
                   - Indians split between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims.
  •   - Caribbeans mainly Protestant or Catholic